Author: Marianna Wahlsten

Humboldt Forum ©Stephan Falk

Humboldt Forum – historic palace reimagined as museum

This vast museum complex in the centre of Berlin has opened officially, although only virtually for the public so far. It is one the biggest cultural buildings in Europe, comparable in scale to the Louvre in Paris. With reconstructed baroque-style façades the design concept creates continuity with a glorified past of the modern era. The new museum is named after the brothers Wilhelm and Alexander von Humboldt, who brought forward a scientific and educational model influenced by the arts and philosophy of the beginning of 19th century. 

Humboldt Forum, ©SHF/Franco Stella
Section drawing with reconstructed Palace Dome, image: ©SHF/Franco Stella

 

The original palace on the Museum Island site had been badly damaged during World War II bombing and then demolished in 1950. It was replaced by the Palace of the Republic, built in 1976 (containing shops, restaurants and even a disco), but closed in 1990 due to problems with asbestos. Following a parliament vote in 2002, it was decided that the 1970s building would be demolished and the former palace would be rebuilt as a museum.

Humboldt Forum, Berlin, photo: ©David von Becker
The Schlüter courtyard surrounded by three reconstructed baroque-style façades and the modern designed by Franco Stella, photo: ©David von Becker

Italian architect Franco Stella won the architectural competition in 2008. Following the brief, three sides of the building have been constructed replicating the baroque period façades as designed by architect Andreas Schlüter (1659-1714). In Stella’s architectural concept a modern minimalist façade extends on the east side and a passageway in a north-south direction forms a covered route cutting through the middle of the building. The building combines historical forms with contemporary construction, a stylistic approach that can be linked back to the Tendenza group formed in the late 1960s in Italy, which opposed the abstraction of 20th-century modernist architecture.

Humboldt Forum atrium, photo ©Alexander Schippel
Entrance hall with open porticoes and a steel-framed glass roof, photo ©Alexander Schippel

In the 1970s Stella collaborated with Aldo Rossi and an influential group of architects at the Venice University, where Stella also held an academic position. Their interest towards a historical analysis of the city can be understood underpinning Franco’s winning concept for the Humboldt Forum. The reconstruction and references to history could be interpreted as a celebration of modernity and enlightenment, an epistemological break from medieval times. The architects of Tendenza blurred the hierarchies of architectural references and recognised the importance of history, which coincided with the development of postmodernism.

Humboldt Forum, ©SHF/Golden Section Graphics
A total area of 92,356 m2 over three floors, the basement and rooftop restaurant. The new passageway in the middle of the vast building is open day and night, image ©SHF/Golden Section Graphics

Stella describes the ’via colonnata’, the passageway extending across the building, as a modern reference to the long corridor at the Uffizi Gallery by Vasari. This formal strategy, which creates a public pathway through the museum, exemplifies an ideological model, where grand cultural buildings could be more closely intergrated to the urban fabric. On the Museum Island there were already five magnificent museums. The Neues Museum had also been destroyed during the war, and opened in 2009 after award-winning restoration work by David Chipperfield. A new metro station is planned to open on the island end of this year. The area is an exceptional concentration of cultural offerings.

Humboldt Forum, photo ©Christoph Musiol
Minimalist façade along the river Spree and a long ramp leading down to the waterfront. Berlin Cathedral on the right, photo ©Christoph Musiol

The Humboldt Forum will be home to the Ethnological Museum, the Museum of Asian Art, as well as temporary exhibitions and the Humboldt Lab exhibition and event spaces. Both the architectural concept, where the recreation of an old palace building can be seen as a form of nostalgic idealisation of the past, and the contents of the museum, have been strongly debated. Artefacts coming from Berlin’s Ethnological Museum are part of a controversial collection, which can be traced back to the Brandenburg-Prussian Cabinet of Curiosities. Treasures brought from Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas belong to a contested European colonial past. Restitution to their country of origin is widely discussed. The role of the museum in this difficult issue has been brought up.

The range of historic architecture on the Museum Island is impressive. With Chipperfield’s design for the James Simon Gallery, the modern façade of Humboldt Forum appears as a pair in dialogue alongside the river Spree.

 

Humboldt Forum 

 

 

 

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Room of Silence, BER airport, gmp architects

A Space for Silence, in line with the geometrical terminal design

The new Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER) designed by gmp architects is finally open. Inspired by Mies van der Rohe and preussian neo-classicism, the building conjures an idea of polished, pragmatic efficiency. For a moment of contemplation or prayer, the meditation space provides a quiet refuge in transit.   

Entrance hall with eight check-in islands, BER terminal, designed by gmp
Entrance hall with eight check-in islands, photo ©Danica O. Kus

Gmp is one of the leading architectural firms for urban infrastructure with offices in Germany and Asia. They have successfully completed stadiums in China, several other airport terminals, and elaborate projects, such as the Berlin main railway station, where trains cross on two separate levels. When problems emerged at the Berlin Brandenburg terminal just before opening in 2011, the airport company took charge of the completion, which famously lasted almost a decade to finish. It’s an unusual story that award-winning architects with extensive experience lost control of completing such a major building project.  

Main entrance, BER terminal, designed by gmp
A long colonnade in front of the main entrance to Berlin Brandenburg terminal, photo ©Danica O. Kus

Tegel Airport (TXL) was their first big commission in the late 1960s, based on Meinhard von Gerkan’s (founding partner) idea developed as student. Von Gerkan, who has also written widely on their projects, believes in geometrical models that should guide spatial design. The TXL plan was based on a flexible concept that was initially envisioned as two identical hexagonal buildings next to each other. The new BER terminal design is also based on a geometrical model, which draws from a clearer rationalist principle. Its expansion has been imagined as continuity through rectangular forms.  

Viewing deck, BER terminal, designed by gmp
A promenade on the old-fashioned viewing deck on airside, which can be accessed also when not travelling, photo ©Danica O. Kus

Due to delays the new airport concept has been seen by some critics as outdated. Of course contantly evolving information technology and unpredictable global events change the requirements for terminal buildings. The current crisis in aviation will take 3-4 years to recover, Engelbert Lütke Daldrup, CEO of BER airport company, predicts. Hence the current size of the terminal seems perfect for the coming years. In comparison to TXL, the BER terminal is spacious with a clarity in the programme, in which the Miesien horizontal uniformity can be recognised as a guiding principle. But the unbelievably short distances, that were part of the TXL magic, are impossible today due to safety restrictions. 

Besides Mies van der Rohe and Bauhaus there are formal references to the grand neo-classical buildings of Berlin and Potsdam, the architects explained. The long horizontal colonnades have been appropriated as slender columns, supporting the vast roof structure, that seems to be floating above the terminal. As a high-tech interpretation of the preussian architectural heritage, the terminal façade creates formal continuity with Berlin’s historic identity. The train connection between city centre and airport, accessed vertically below terminal 1 departure hall, has been designed to ease travel to and from airport. As the central station was also conceived by gmp, there is a formal logic binding these two major elements in the city’s infrastructure together.

 

 

Room of Silence, BER terminal, gmp architects, photo ©Danica O. Kus
Prayer room lit by fluorescent light from above, photo © Danica O. Kus

Terminal architecture has become elaborate and complex, especially in Asia, where glasshouses containing gardens are incorporated into airports to soothe anxious travellers and offer environments for relaxation. At BER the terminal architecture feels pragmatic, a sophisticated and upgraded version of the generic airport environment. One of the highlights, a refuge for stressed-out travellers in need of isolation, is the Room of Silence. Unlike some airport chapels, it has been conceived as a unique part within the terminal complex, providing an abstract visual realm and a sense of stillness.

Room of Silence, BER terminal, photo © Danica O. Kus
Interconnecting rooms lined with bespoke Kolumba bricks, photo © Danica O. Kus

The chapel can be found on the second floor above the departure hall, behind Starbucks, and hence accessible prior to border and safety checks. In contrast to the wide-open spaces and glossy surfaces of the terminal, the chapel feels archaic and cave-like. Based on a geometric formal idea, the five interconnecting rooms have been created with a minimalist aesthetic to enhance the meditative character of the space. The aim is to serve people from all cultural and religious backgrounds as a space of reflection and prayer.

Room of Silence, BER airport terminal, photo © Danica O. Kus
Led strips between the gaps create a glowing light on textured walls and reflections on copper surfaces, photo © Danica O.Kus

The particular haptic quality can be experienced immediately inside the entrance hall, which opens to two small courtyard rooms on both sides. Silence and tranquillity will be sensed by the body at the threshold. The walls are covered with handcrafted bricks – a materiality in total contrast to the sleek and shiny terminal spaces. Those bespoke Kolumba bricks form a layered texture to the walls, which also enhances acoustic qualities. Wall texture is emphasised by LED strips placed low at the edge of the floor, also covered with brick. 

Room of Silence, BER airport terminal, photo © Danica O. Kus
Two prayer rooms with minimal religious symbols, photo © Danica O. Kus

There are two prayer rooms, one with a cross and the other with a compass in bronze embedded to the floor to show the special direction for prayer. With stepped vaulted ceilings, these rooms include open horizontal joints, where light also falls from above, creating the impression of a floating ’light vault’ made of bricks. Following the geometric proportional system of the terminal, these rooms nevertheless feel separated from the mundane hassle of the world in transit surrounding them. A Zumthor-like transcendental quality reigns in these spaces. 

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The Factory exterior view - designed by OMA, with Ellen van Loon at OMA as child architect, image: ©OMA,Nov 2019

The real vs. the virtual: performance and lived space

The classical concept of the grand concert venue is being reconfigured as a more flexible and open model. During the pandemic crisis, alternative formats and virtual concerts have changed the way cultural events have been experienced.  

Just before the second lockdown at the end of October I was able to attend a concert at the atmospheric Pierre Boulez Saal in Berlin, an improvised performance by jazz pianist and composer Florian Weber with the Ensemble Modern. The audience was arranged around the oval stage, which is at the same level with the first row of seats. Despite the distancing measures, the space felt intimate. The Frank Gehry -designed interior has been conceived as a flexible space with different ways to place the public in relation to the musicians.

Pierre Boulez Saal
Pierre Boulez Saal, a flexible and intimate concert hall, designed by Frank Gehry

The great halls, such as Paris Philharmonie by Jean Nouvel, Elbphilharmonie by Herzog de Mouron in Hamburg, and the more intimate ones like Pierre Boulez Saal, are like sacred spaces of the modern secular world, designed for acoustical perfection. It’s not just about the different tones and reverberations of sound in space, but also the phenomenological moment in a specific environment. Musical notes convey the ephemeral experience of being, a spiritual dimension in time, evoking the Baudelairean idea of the modernist aesthetic as a tension between the transitory and the eternal.

Jasper Parrott, who represents some of the world’s leading classical musicians, believes that there will be new types of venues in the future, not only online platforms, but also physical spaces that will provide more flexibility and more variety. As an example Parrott mentions the Factory, a multi-function cultural space in Manchester designed by OMA, still under construction and set to open in 2022. Although delayed by the pandemic, Parrott sees the positive side of the situation, which might ease the launch of this new centre, as they will have a longer period of experimentation and gestation. The building has been designed as an adaptable space, which can be transformed for different types of needs and performances.

The Factory, Manchester
The Factory exterior view – designed by OMA, Ellen van Loon as chief architect, image: ©OMA 2019

Other unexplored potential could be found for concert halls converted from redundant office buildings or even car parks Parrott suggests. The great potential of industrial spaces as concert venues could be witnessed at the Fiskars Summer Festival in Finland this the autumn, where a converted Fiskars factory building hosted performances of classical music with leading conductors, including Dalia Stasevska, Esa-Pekka Salonen and Klaus Mäkelä. Without any acoustical enhancement or sound proofing the concerts played out beautifully in that alternative set up. The acoustic qualities of that space were transformed by the presence of the audience, as cellist Senja Rummukainen pointed out. It was one of the last summer evenings, a special event for an audience that had been deprived by the lived experience  of music.

Fiskars Summer Festival 2020 at the Old Knife Factory
Fiskars Summer Festival at the Old Knife Factory with a programme of talks and concerts to mark the 90th anniversary of Jorma Panula
Fiskars Summer Festival 2020
Esa-Pekka Salonen conducting his composition ‘Stockholm Diary’ for string orchestra, Fiskars Summer Festival at the Old Knife Factory

Public can now also enjoy live concerts through myriads of digital channels, provided by the great concert halls and orchestras. The Berlin Philharmoniker Digital Concert Hall offers all concerts online through subscription or one-off purchase and Paris Philharmonie is streaming most concerts online for free. A new online platform Virtual Circle, will be launched by Parrott’s management company, for streaming live concerts as well as album launches and workshops. A digital archive of concerts from the Elbphilharmonie in Hamburg is hosted by the German channel NDR . Reaching the public through digital formats also provides opportunities for musicians to keep on playing and performing, even in the absence of an audience. Although a recent interview I did for Arkkitehti with Finnish conductor Klaus Mäkelä made it clear, how musicians get energised and inspired by the presence of an audience. A full concert hall makes the best ambiance, also for the performers. The vineyard-shaped concert halls, create the most intimate exchange between the public and the stage area. As Mäkelä explained, even when most of the audience is often behind him, their reactions and the atmosphere is constantly felt by those on the stage.

For Parrott one of the most unforgettable concerts this year was Mäkelä’s debut at Paris Philharmonie in July. It was the first concert after the closure in the beginning of the year and the atmosphere was very special despite the safety measures. The Jean Nouvel -designed concert hall is one of the landmarks on the northern edge of the French capital city, a lavish cultural institution, which has transformed this previously deprived area. The spatial concept allows to adapt the placement of musicians, which Mäkelä is looking forward to experiment with when he starts as new musical director of Orchestra de Paris in 2022.

Marianna Wahlsten
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Was the countryside ever romantic?

 

A massive research project led by Rem Koolhaas over five years culminated in the exhibition ‘Countryside, The Future’ at the Guggenheim New York. The show will be running until February 2012. After decades being obsessed by urbanism and megastructures, Koolhaas became fascinated by the radical development taking place in rural environments outside cities. The show anticipates a turn of interests, accelerated by the pandemic.

Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas is famous for his impatience and restless intellect, reflected in the wide range of issues covered in the Guggenheim exhibition Countryside, The Future. As a research project it aims to figure out radical changes taking place outside cities, like an anthropological survey on man’s relationship to nature, technology and the new order of the rural environment. Koolhaas believes that new technologies will provide solutions to global warming. The book Countryside, A Report (Taschen 2020) published with the exhibition, consists of essays reflecting on some fascinating topics and ends with Koolhaas’ text, which is actually a list of questions, a stream of consciousness spread over 26 pages. Koolhaas starts by asking:

Where did the cows go?

And when did they leave?

Contemporary haymaking in Qatar, against an impressionist style rural scene painted by Monet.

For an architect, who was inspired by megastructures and obsessed with ’aesthetics of congestion’, this latest turn seems initially as a provocative gesture. However the exhibition explores a transformation of the posthuman condition, a discursive turn in which technological innovations could be harnessed in support of nature and the wider ecosystem. Observations collected by research teams from different corners of the planet, including Harvard GSD, University of Nairobi and Design Academy Eindhoven, bring together moral, ethical and technological questions, which Koolhaas articulates:

Will warming kill democracy?

Can it only be stopped by authority?

Could Democracy kill Warming?

Wind farms, solar farms, storage and distribution centers, factory farms, greenhouses, airports, highways, nuclear test sites, colossal art works, dams, nature reserves – is their advance a good sign?

Why are they impeccably organised while we are struck in a perpetual muddle?

Why does perfection only exist in domains to which we don’t seem to have access?

As urban life has been transformed by the pandemic, the timing of the Guggenheim exhibition seems prophetic. Open for just three weeks before all museums in New York closed, it was the second occasion for Koolhaas to showcase at the Guggenheim. First one was the 1978 show ’The Sparkling Metropolis’ with Madelon Vriesendorp. When pondering the effects of globalisation in a text from 1993 in S,M,L,XL Koolhaas listed the spread of epidemics and recognised a general expansion of possibilities ’for better or for worse’. And the effect on architecture on typical koolhaasian contradictory manner : ”exponentially depletes the architectural imagination” and then ”exponentially enriches the architectural imagination”. 

Rem Koolhaas with Guggenheim curator Troy Conrad Therrien and Samir Bantal from AMO, Image by Kristopher McKay

Koolhaas’ fascination for the rural environment is marked by the coexistence of digital technology, ecosystems, robotics and beautiful landscape, recognised as ’the new Sublime’. The massive cubic forms of data centers against an empty landscape in the Nevada desert exemplifies this form of beauty according to Koolhaas. Through an ideological rambling over a myriad of propositions for the future in the countryside, Koolhaas lyrically/cynically wonders:

Are data centers more impressive than pyramids?

Are more secrets buried in their chambers?

Are we buried alive in them?

Are our lives buried in them?

Could there ever be a new anarchy?

Can there again be art without CV, biography, context?

As in Lascaux?

Can we relearn romanticism?

Is a romantic someone who sees beauty even where it doesn’t exist?

Is the Sublime a way to combine good and bad? 

Is the contemporary countryside on its way to the Sublime?

What is more important for humankind: the Tesla GigaFactory, the Thermae de Vals, CCTV, or a refugee camp?

Countryside , The Future, Guggenheim New York, until 14.2.2021 https://www.guggenheim.org/exhibition/countryside

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Savoy Restaurant, Helsinki

A modernist classic restored

Located in the heart of Helsinki with views over the rooftops, Savoy Restaurant belongs to the city’s 20th century design heritage. The interior was created by Finnish architects Alvar Aalto and Aino Marsio-Aalto as an antidote to the avantgarde machine-aesthetic of the 1930s. The restaurant is one of the city’s iconic interiors, embodying a great sense of comfort and intimacy.

Savoy Restaurant, Helsinki
Original panelling and furnishings from the 1930s have been restored

After restoration by London-based designer Ilse Crawford and her firm Studio Ilse, the original ambience, which had been altered by refurbishments over past decades, has been brought back and polished. Studio Ilse is known for many hotel and restaurant interiors, including the much-copied Soho House in New York. At Savoy, together with her team, she conceived one of the most subtle restoration works, which would be hard to imitate or replicate anywhere else.

Savoy Restaurant
Wooden panelling, warm, natural materials and a sense of intimacy ©Marianna Wahlsten

The idea of contemporary comfort underpins the interiors designed by Studio Ilse, which is a natural connection to the Aalto design philosophy. Working against the rigid aesthetic of the early Modern Movement, the Aaltos were looking for alternative ideas to enhance modern living environments. Instead of metal, they preferred the warmer qualities and better acoustics found in wood. At Savoy the panelling, and also smaller details, such as ceiling lights behind wooden screens, all add up to the great acoustics, further enhanced by the full carpet in 100% wool replaced during the renovation.

Savoy Restaurant, Helsinki
A subtle colour scheme of soft tones of brown and beige was discovered in the notebook of Aino Marsio-Aalto ©Marianna Wahlsten

Aalto’s early projects, including their Munkkiniemi home and the Savoy, exemplify the Scandinavian turn of the Modern Movement. As an academic and magazine editor, before setting up her design studio, Crawford has a deep understanding of Aalto’s guiding principles. Her team worked closely with Finnish architect Tapani Mustonen and the Alvar Aalto Foundation, studying all the design documentation, the layouts and the materials. Photographs of the very first design were mainly black-and-white, but from archival descriptions and Aino Marsio-Aalto’s notes, a tonal range of soft browns was detected as the original colour palette for the interior.

Savoy Restaurant, Helsinki
This corner table still commemorates one of the regular guest, the war hero Marshal Mannerheim ©Marianna Wahlsten

The influence of Aino Marsio-Aalto, and how the couple worked together, was a great revelation for Crawford and her team. The textiles and material surfaces are all part of Marsio-Aalto’s design vocabulary, where an emblematic aesthetic sensibility lives on. Until her untimely death in 1949, she was also director of Artek, the furniture company co-founded by the couple. 

“We looked at both of them, also their personalities, how they approached the interiors, their use of natural materials, the timber – that was very interesting.” explains Joanna Rowlandson, one of the designers working on the project, “We saw a difference in their working processes: one is very functional and the other is much looser. And that’s so nice about their interiors, you can see a bit of both of their ways of working.”

Savoy Restaurant, Helsinki
Stripes on the back wall banquette is a new addition to the textiles

Mustonen, the chief architect of the restoration, has worked on many Aalto buildings, including the Viipuri Library. Mustonen says there is always something new to learn about Aalto’s way of thinking and why certain architectural solutions were used. The Aaltos were very dynamic and forward-looking already in the 1920s with many international connections with other architects and artists of the Modern Movement. ”The way they thought is evident in the joy and passion in their buildings and interiors. These are easy places to be in,” Mustonen says about the special atmosphere, which is refined and at the same time relaxed.

Savoy Restaurant, Helsinki ©Marianna Wahlsten
Linking the inside with the city: from the glass-covered terrace views expand over rooftops and the park below ©Marianna Wahlsten

During the latest restoration, all wooden surfaces were stripped and brought back to show the natural character of wood. ”Aalto spoke how colours should express authentic characteristics of materials. During the 1960s and 1970s renovations all the oak and birch surfaces, all the windows and door frames, had been stained to evoke mahogany”, Mustonen explained. Each era has its own formal and aesthetic logic, which can be detected behind each renovation: “It has been a constant movement”. But now it seems the original design has been firmly recovered. 

Savoy Restaurant

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Bauhaus Museum Dessau Photo Danica O. Kus

‘More with less’ – Bauhaus on the centenary

What is the meaning of Bauhaus today, 100 years after the school was launched? The strong legacy can be discovered in the Bauhaus Museum Dessau, a new building designed by Addenda Architects. Located in the same city where the Bauhaus campus (1926) by Walter Gropius operated, it is home to the second largest Bauhaus collection.

Bauhaus Museum Dessau Photo Danica O. Kus
The ground floor gallery space is designed for changing exhibitions and events, photo ©Danica O. Kus

The new building adopts a creative approach to the Bauhaus legacy. “Our basic conception for the museum was to create a large flexible space so that exhibitions and workshops can take place without feeling restricted in any way by the architecture,” says architect Roberto González from Addenda Architects. They won the open architectural competition, which had 831 submissions. Their winning idea was integrated with the requirements for the museum, which needed an area of 1500 square metres for the collection. 

Bauhaus Museum Dessau Photo Danica O. Kus
The façade creates a play of transparency and reflection, photo ©Danica O. Kus

The structural system, where a closed concrete cube with no daylight floats above the large open-plan ground level, protects exhibits from direct sunlight. It is supported by two staircases, which are 50 meters apart. The wide open space without columns on the ground floor is designed for contemporary exhibitions, and the permanent collection is housed in the spaces above.

A glass façade surrounds the entire building. It’s transparent, although less than initially intended, because of budgetary constraints. Depending on the time of day, you can see right through the building, when daylight begins to recede. 

Bauhaus Museum Dessau Photo Danica O. Kus
A vast open space without columns on the ground floor, photo ©Danica O. Kus

On the ground the floor the glass walls evoke openness and a connection to the outside and the park next to it. It is a glass box in the Miesien tradition. The city and the park on the other side are reflected in the façade. “There are no limitations. Everything seems open, transparent and fluid” says González. As architects from Barcelona, González acknowledges the influence of the Mies van der Rohe Barcelona Pavilion: “We are definitely a team of Mies fans”, although their maxim could be translated into “more with less”, González points out. 

Bauhaus Museum Dessau Photo Danica O. Kus
Architect Roberto González, photo ©Danica O. Kus

The building is about proportion, positioning and space, González explains. “It’s not so much about using the highest quality materials. The Bauhaus Museum Dessau shows that given the right combination of materials, space, colours etc. you can achieve an outstanding result with limited resources. That’s very Bauhaus.”

Bauhaus Museum Dessau Photo Danica O. Kus
Installation with coloured glass by Lucy Raven, photo ©Danica O. Kus

There are formal parallels with the Bauhaus Building designed by Walter Gropius, although they are not meant as direct references. “For us these decisions were all about flexibility and function. And Gropius was probably thinking the same thing with the Bauhaus Building”, González explains.

Concern for the environment can be seen as contemporary additions to the Bauhaus vocabulary. The green roof was designed for climatic reasons and for a connection between the building and the park. “Apart from the symbolic motivation there is also a practical reason for doing this: rainwater can be used to water the plants and plants help to isolate the building.” González says. His firm Addenda Architects is based in Barcelona, where architects have less restrictions and regulations about building. González says they pushed the norms with the Bauhaus Museum as far as they could: “Only with the façade did we deliberately rely on the standard requirements”.

Bauhaus Museum Dessau Photo Danica O. Kus
Textiles and weaving were part of the artistic production at Bauhaus, photo ©Danica O. Kus
Bauhaus Museum Dessau Photo Danica O. Kus
photo ©Danica O. Kus

The glass façade has triple glazing with a sunscreen protecting against heat. There is also a new system for air conditioning, where the large ground floor space is ventilated with the help of a water pipe. The ventilation echoes the system of traditional Andalusian patios in the south of Spain.

Bauhaus Museum Dessau Photo Danica O. Kus
Art and graphic design at Bauhaus, photo ©Danica O. Kus
Bauhaus Museum Dessau Photo Danica O. Kus
The Bauhaus collection is displayed in galleries protected from daylight, photo ©Danica O. Kus

Bauhaus Dessau Museum

Dessau, Germany

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