Category: Blog

Serpentine Pavilion 2019 – latest chapter in the summer ritual: a low-lying canopy of slate tiles

An architect of international repute at a young age, Junya Ishigami is known for alternative models and expressions. Complimented by a digital app launched this week, an artistic summer experience is there to be discovered in London’s Kensington Gardens – and free for all.

photos by Danica Kus –

A sloping roof of dark grey Cumbrian slate will occupy the front yard of the Serpentine Gallery in Kensington Gardens this summer. It’s the latest commission in the architectural programme of the Serpentine Gallery, led by artistic director Hans Ulrich Obrist. The architect in charge this year is the 45-year old Japanese Junya Ishigami, whom Obrist first met in the 2010 Venice Architecture Biennale.

Ishigami was awarded the Golden Lion that year at only 34 years old. At the biennale Obrist had been struck by Ishigami’s poetic approach and explains how he has always seen great architecture as an outcome of a constant dialogue with other art forms. In Ishihgami’s project for the Serpentine a multi-layered philosophical and artistic dialogue is there to be discovered, in which the built form draws from the natural environment.

This summer the Serpentine programme will offer a digital element exploring the landscape, the vast green space surrounding the Serpentine Gallery. The Deep Listener app was created by Danish artist Jakob Kudsk Steensen and can be downloaded on a smartphone. The artist is interested in ecological questions and has brought a new dimension to the park experience. His work was awarded at the Rencontres d’Arles photography festival last week, showing great creative vision and skills developed through animation and video games. brought to a new context in a collaboration with Google Arts and Culture.

Junya Ishigami and Hans Ulrich Obrist presenting the pavilion, this year without resigned director Yana Peel, photo: ©Danica Kus
Carefully landscaped into the Royal Parks site, the interior area is 350 sqm, photo: ©Danica Kus
The pavilion will host many public events over the summer, photo: ©Danica Kus

The pavilion building has been conceived as an imaginative play with materiality and weight, representing the most basic architectural element: the roof. The unusual structure is the outcome of formal experimentation, created with the help and technical expertise by AECOM this year. It is a collaboration with traditional stonemasonry as well as high tech digital design. The heavy stone roof supported by thin steel columns could be seen as an interpretation of traditional architectural conventions. It reminds Abbé Laugier’s ‘primitive hut’, a conceptual idea in architectural history translated here into contemporary context.

Below the slated roof, an open space connects with the surrounding landscape by its free-flowing abstract form. Slightly ominous, its formal play could be seen as reflecting the global political and ecological situation. Like a shelter below a bird’s wing, the space is designed to be a comfortable environment within the garden, as Ishigami explains. His architectural oeuvre has been influenced by Le Corbusier, which can be recognized on the carefully considered details and proportions. Perhaps an homage to the corbusien legacy could be read in the symbolic of the raven’s wing.

The slate roof is laid over a metal net above the steel columns, photo: ©Danica Kus
A forest of steel columns supporting 61 tonnes of slate, photo: ©Danica Kus

For Ishigami the six months time frame given from start to completion was a challenge. He proposed several projects to the Serpentine team and then discussed the possibilities. Normally for each architectural project he starts by a longer period of research, because each project is disconnected from any previous work, as Ishigami explains: ”Each project and each site is unique”. This is an approach he adopted from working for the japanese firm SANAA at the start of his career. One of the challenges at the Serpentine pavilion is its temporary nature. The pavilion will have another life beyond the Serpentine site. It will be reconstructed elsewhere, which in terms of suitable materials poses considerations in order to be easily rebuilt and sustainable, Ishigami explains.

The pavilion is open daily with a café 10am-6pm, photo: ©Danica Kus

Guardian’s architecture critic Oliver Wainwright claimed that UK safety regulations had not been in favour of the project and suggested that architects should be given more time than six months to finish the pavilion design. This would completely transform the initial idea though. Also as a yearly summer event, it is one of London’s summer rituals. It should be accepted that there is an element of urgency and transience as a starting point.

Ishigami himself points out that he was aware of the UK regulations from the start and is used to the varying requirements in different global situations through many other international projects. He explained that normally there would have been more time to find aesthetic solutions. But in the final pavilion design the only details that he finds slightly distracting are the small dots on the transparent walls.

This year’s pavilion is the nineteenth completed commission and forms a chapter in some incredible experimental approaches in architecture. Each pavilion seems to continue within a formal, shared narrative with the previous ones, introducing contemporary architecture to wider audiences – a unique architectural experience and free to visit throughout the summer. In 2016 with Bjarke Ingels and five smaller pavilions, it was the most visited architectural exhibition in the world.

For Obrist a key idea in the Serpentine Pavilion is the legacy of Zaha Hadid that ’there should be no end to experimentation’. Hadid, whose pavilion was the first, is the spiritual mentor of this architectural programme. Since then each pavilion has represented an experiment, a temporary building in a unique site in one of the most iconic locations in the world. The only one that never got realised – perhaps for being too radical for this historic location – was in 2004 by MVRDV.

Like each summer the pavilion will host Park Nights, a programme sponsored by  COS for artists, fashion designers, architects and film makers on selected Friday evenings. The Serpentine Pavilion is a much anticipated event each year, completed always with incredible attention to detail. This year Ishigami’s design will provide an unforgettable meeting place for all London visitors.

Ishigami with Hans Ulrich Obrist, photo: ©Danica Kus
Ishigami wanted to emphasise the plain natural materiality of the stone in the park, photo: ©Danica Kus

Serpentine Pavilion 2019: 21.6 – 6.10.2019

Jean Nouvel, National Museum of Qatar, Danica Kus

Jean Nouvel’s design in Doha – reference to nature on giant scale

National Museum of Qatar – concept developed by Jean Nouvel from a natural formation in the desert, photos by Danica Kus –

A system of interlocking disks, made of sand-coloured fibreglass reinforced concrete, photo: © Danica Kus
National Museum Qatar by Jean Nouvel, photo: Danica Kus
New museum is built around the historic palace of the founder of modern Qatar , photo: ©Danica Kus
National Museum Qatar by Jean Nouvel, photo: Danica Kus
Traditional Arabic details restored and contrasted with contemporary sculptural forms, photo: ©Danica Kus

The new museum in Doha is a building of the digital age: sculptural play enhanced by the art of engineering. In the form of giant disks of different sizes and directions, the museum surrounds the restored historic Palace of Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim. The galleries around the palace create a circular promenade of 1,5 km in total. Showcasing the cultural, economic and environmental developments in Qatar through spectacular films and installations, including a 360-degree video installation by artist Doug Aitken, the galleries span over 7000 square meters for permanent collections and 1700 for temporary exhibitions.

National Museum Qatar by Jean Nouvel, photo: Danica Kus
Eleven large galleries provide space for commissioned artworks and installations, photo: © Danica Kus
National Museum Qatar by Jean Nouvel, photo: Danica Kus
Immersive installations and films, all produced by the Doha Film Institute, telling stories about local landscape and nature, photo ©Danica Kus

A park with native plants designed by French landscape architect Michel Desvignes provides space for large sculptures, including works by Liam Gillick, Louise Bourgeois and Martin Creed. ALFA, the spectacular waterside installation, shaped to reflect the geometrics of Arabic calligraphy, was commissioned from French artist Jean-Michel Othoniel. With free entry to locals, the museum is a vast public space shaded and protected from the heat of the desert climate. A temporary exhibition Making Doha 1950-2013 (28.3 – 30.8.2019) curated by Rem Koolhaas and OMA/AMO explores the ongoing development of Doha and the global discipline of architecture.

National Museum of Qatar, Doha, by Jean Nouvel, photo Danica Kus
Lagoon installation by Jean-Michel Othoniel, photo: ©Danica Kus

As urban gestures, Jean Nouvel’s buildings are strong artistic statements, conceived as visually striking spatial experiments. Nouvel says his approach has been inspired by his mentor French architect Claude Parent, for whom he worked in the beginning of his career. His design for L’Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris (completed in 1987) exemplified great visual impact, where sophisticated technology controlled the mechanics of interlaced window screens, symbolising a connection between mathematics and nature. In Doha the symbol for formal inspiration is the ‘desert rose’, a natural mineral formation in the Gulf region. This starting point is seen by Nouvel as the most primitive form of architecture.

National Museum Qatar, photo ©Danica Kus
Cantilevered disks provide shade in the hot desert climate, photo © Danica Kus

In the Arabic world architectural symbolism and innovation has been famously incorporated into the changing urban fabric, resulting in spectacular forms, where architecture plays a central role as cultural expression. Architecture can be understood as a language of time and space, form and place, where history and the surrounding landscape provide the context. From a functional perspective, what Nouvel has created seems like a giant massing of brise-soleil. Next to the desert, facing the 900- meters-long lagoon, the form creates continuity in space and time.

National Museum Qatar by Jean Nouvel, photo: Danica Kus
Geometrics and engineering: vertical disks support the building, photo: ©Danica Kus

The new museum follows a succession of institutional buildings by international architects, such as Rem Koolhaas and I.M Pei, transforming Doha’s urban identity. With seemingly endless financial resources, contrasted though by reports of problems in working conditions, these public buildings provide opportunities for architectural experimentation as well as grand civic spaces for the Qatari residents and visitors alike. 

Largest disk is 87 meters in diameter and smallest 14 meters, photo ©Danica Kus

The extreme desert climate is a point of departure for bold formal innovation. Jean Nouvel’s architectural concept interacts with the social and climatic situation that prevails in Qatar and conditions this kind of architectural culture. In contrast to the towers marking the skyline, Nouvel has created a form lying low by the Doha Bay. As formal play, it responds to the site, and could not exist anywhere else. Unique and extravagant – it’s an expression of strong cultural ambition.


Oodi Library – reclaiming civic space

photos by Danica Kus

Queues forming outside libraries is not such a common phenomenon. But when Oodi Library opened to the public in the centre of Helsinki in the beginning of December, there was a massive interest towards the building and locals were impatient to see the space. Designed by Helsinki based firm ALA Architects, the library was conceived to reinvent the traditional library concept, and had been in the news for some time. 

The imposing building has a floor space of 17200m2, photo: Danica Kus ©

The ship-like structure with an undulating roof sits next to some of the most iconic buildings in Helsinki, forming a dialogue with key cultural and civic institutions, including the Parliament House. From the top floor balcony there is a symbolic visual connection to the space where the state’s policy and decision making takes place. Next to it the Kiasma Museum of contemporary art by Steven Holl has finally got a neighbouring building that articulates similar formal ideas. But in contrast to the Kiasma’s curving metallic surfaces, Oodi has been built with glass and wood.

Across the large square outside, the Parliament building, photo: Danica Kus ©

“We wanted to create a welcoming, soft building in the midst of the relatively hard and alienating built environment. Using wood creates warmth which feels very natural to most Finns” , explains Samuli Woolston, one of the founding partners at ALA. “The symbolic meaning of building this extremely open piece of social infrastructure opposite the imposing stone columns of the parliament created a challenge for its architectural expression. We decided a soft contrast would work here.”

The building is home to a wide range of cultural and creative activities, including studio spaces for making music, crafts ateliers and a cineclub, photo: Danica Kus ©

ALA is one of the leading young offices in Helsinki with two other partners Antti Nousjoki and Juho Grönholm. Their first big commission was the Kilden concert hall in Norway which opened in 2012 and shares similar qualities with the library. The use of wood and undulating forms could be seen as a nod to Alvar Aalto’s architecture, such as the famous Finnish Pavilion from 1939 in New York. However, with the help of technical innovations ALA have uniquely interpreted their references into a distinctive architectural landmark for this central urban site. “Our generation feels comfortable with using a variety of architectural gestures in creating dramatic effects” Woolston says. The architects were also able to innovate with the building’s programme, as they were commissioned to develop the concept in response to a present day understanding of the function of a public library. The building was designed to provide a variety of new possibilities for local citizens, not just for picking up books, but to interact with each other and to find all kinds of new learning platforms and creative tools. 

Views of the surrounding city and lots of space left around and above the bookshelves, photo: Danica Kus ©

The central site also adds to the attraction of this imposing building, where it seems to fill a gap of existential connection between buildings and people. While providing a much needed public space for creative opportunities, it also transforms the cityscape by its programmatic innovation. Branded the ‘new collective living room’, it breaks the barriers between inside and outside space. “Helsinki is becoming more multicultural and socially open than ever before. This is actively supported by the city through city planning and by loosening norms to allow a variety of events and organisation to find new public lives,” Woolston explains.   

Artful staircase, photo: Danica Kus ©

Glass and timber are key materials of the building, creating a dialogue between natural and high tech, photo: Danica Kus ©

Libraries were the central theme of the Finnish Pavilion at the Venice Architecture Biennale, responding to the idea of ‘freespace’ and displaying the development of the library in the national heritage. As a typology the library has certainly seen its apogee in Oodi, which now stands for new values and urban transformation, making a powerful visual and social impact. “I would like to see us as a part of the tradition of the strong and expressive, often nature inspired architecture of Reima and Raili Pietilä and the Suomalainen brothers. The rational and the irrational exist simultaneously in our architecture,” Woolston says. Incidentally, ALA have recently completed an award-winning renovation of the Pietiläs’ iconic Dipoli building in Espoo. Their own legacy, however, seems firmly set in the heart of Helsinki.

A strong presence on three floors, where the entrance level connects with the square in front, photo: Danica Kus ©

Ultimate museum experience in Dundee by Kengo Kuma

V&A outpost by Kengo Kuma – high cultural ambitions for the east coast town in Scotland

V&A Dundee, photo Danica Kus
An arched gateway through the building, allows the flow of people in and around the museum, photo: Danica Kus

Since the Guggenheim effect in Bilbao, big museum brands have become recognised as great initiators for urban regeneration. Dundee in Scotland, on the edge of Europe, is the latest to adopt the strategy by opening an outpost of the prestigious Victoria and Albert Museum and hiring Japanese architect Kengo Kuma to deliver an architectural experience that will transform the cityscape. The new museum sits on the waterfront – its angular form has been compared to a futuristic shipwreck.

V&A Dundee, photo Danica Kus
The vast ship-like structure on the waterfront lies next to the historic RSS Discovery built for exploring Antarctica, photo: Danica Kus

V&A Dundee, photo Danica Kus
Kengo Kuma, also the architect for the new Tokyo Olympics Stadium and the Grand Paris Express train station, photo: Danica Kus

Kuma is known for architectural designs that are inspired by the irregularity of nature. At the new V&A building in Dundee there are no straight lines, which creates an illusion of spatial movement in and around the building. Kuma is also inspired by old traditional building techniques of his native Japan, the use of wood and beautiful local materials. The façade of the new edifice is constructed with prefabricated concrete panels and the interior – with its use of wooden slabs in different sizes in the soaring entrance atrium – echoes the same irregularity in rhythms. The floor is covered with a dark stone, where white marks from fossilised seashells play as reference to the waterfront location. Beautiful materials and the effort of rejecting all structural monotony has come at a cost however. The budget famously doubled halfway through the project, with the final bill coming in at £80 million.

V&A Dundee, photo Danica Kus
With an angular façade the building aims to reconnect the city with nature and the river, photo: Danica Kus

V&A Dundee, photo Danica Kus
Oak panels cover the interior walls, echoing the concrete façade, photo: Danica Kus

The concrete was a functional choice to protect from harsh climatic conditions, but it also fits aesthetically with the urban identity and resonates with the dark stone found in the cityscape extending beyond. The museum has been praised for the way in which it relates with the setting, despite its spectacular form, but nevertheless some criticism has been raised too. While Gehry’s design for Guggenheim was one of the very first architectural experiments with the help of digital programming, here the play with form relies equally on complex mathematical formulations.

V&A Dundee, photo Danica Kus
The soaring atrium which houses a café and bookshop, photo: Danica Kus

V&A Dundee, photo Danica Kus
A long staircase along the side provides an architectural promenade, photo: Danica Kus

Inside the sloping walls provide irregular openings and the atmosphere is warm. Kuma, who is the chosen architect of Tokyo’s new Olympic Stadium, aims to bring intimacy to the largest of developments. The exhibitions are drawn from the V&A collections, but in the Dundee outpost the focus is on Scotland’s design heritage, including 300 objects made in Scotland. One of the highlights is the reconstruction of the Oak Room designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, which was saved and stored after the original building was demolished and is now displayed in the museum. Aiming to restore civic pride and inspire creativity, the museum will no doubt become an enduring magnet for locals and tourists alike.

V&A Dundee, photo Danica Kus
The Oak Room interior, designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh now part of the permanent collection at V&A Dundee, photo: Danica Kus


Amos Rex, Helsinki by JKMM Architects

Helsinki goes underground: Amos Rex is shortlisted for the Finlandia Architecture Award

Asmo Jaaksi, founding partner of JKMM Architects, spoke to us about the new museum designed as an extension of the 1930s iconic Lasipalatsi building. Carved under the old bus station, the irregular domes above add a sense of play to the cityscape. Below the galleries are dedicated for experimental arts. 

Asmo Jaaksi, founding partner of JKMM Architects in the entrance hall of Amos Rex ©Marianna Wahlsten
Asmo Jaaksi, head architect for the Amos Rex museum and founding partner of JKMM Architects in the entrance hall of Amos Rex, photo ©Marianna Wahlsten

How would you describe the new exhibition space, which is a bit lost now behind the hi-tech digital spectacle of the Team Lab collective, what was the key concept of the design?

The starting point is a space that would be open and adaptable. It looks very different when it’s empty. This exhibition by TeamLab takes over its boundaries, totally transforming the sense of space. It’s a vast open area with three connecting galleries, with the undulating roof structure resembling a flying carpet, which you can’t observe during the current exhibition. But perhaps in the future we’ll be able to see also exhibitions within the entire open space. And indeed, adaptability was one of the starting points for the exhibition space.

The fact of building underground, what kind of challenge was that from a design perspective?

Elsewhere there are many museums that are built underground. I didn’t see that as a challenge in itself. In fact exhibition spaces are well suited to be underground, because walls will mostly be used for displaying artworks and don’t need to have openings, and beneath the ground level it is also a protected environment. The challenge is of course to create a pleasant visitor experience. The main objective of the museum is to attract and welcome visitors so that they can enjoy whatever is exhibited. That’s probably the biggest architectural challenge, to make an underground space inviting. Of course structurally this has been a massive challenge. Not just the fact of building underground, but because it’s such a central and dense urban location with lots of traffic passing through. We had to dig deep into the terrain, which was then transformed into the underground galleries.

Installation by TeamLab, Amos Rex
Digital installation ‘Vortex of Light Particles’ (2018) by TeamLab collective, designed to respond to one of the galleries

You mentioned there are several museums build underground in other countries, did you have any specific building in mind as a reference or idea when you started working on this design?

It’s hard to point to any particular one as there are many good ones. But of course everyone knows the Louvre extension, a great example of an underground museum. That contemporary addition raised the level of attraction of a grand, historic environment in a spectacular way. Here it’s a very different situation and the entire museum concept is very different, but in wider terms there are similarities. Here also we are bringing a new era to a site, where it’s not possible to add anything on the ground level and you need to think how it can be done in an interesting way. The glass pyramid in the Louvre courtyard is of course iconic and already a classic. Here it’s all more recent, but in the same way we wanted to bring a contemporary twist to a historic site.

How do you see the underground urban development in Helsinki, where there are many routes going across the city below the ground?

It can be interesting if it helps in developing meaningful urban connections. In the design of the museum we had plans to integrate an underground train station as part of the Pisararata transport system, which would have offered direct access to the museum. In the same way as some stations in bigger cities, it could have been named after the museum. So if the underground connections help to improve and facilitate circulation, it can be very interesting. There is lots of ground below that could be developed, but of course these spaces need to be well designed in order to be attractive and functional.

Amos Rex by JKMM Architects
Stairway leading to entrance hall to the galleries, photo ©Marianna Wahlsten

Sometimes these underground routes can feel isolating and they seem a bit neglected. What’s your view on that?

Maintenance is very important, so that a sense of value remains in the new urban fabric. When we build environments of high quality, they should also inspire and generate a commitment to look after them better. So, everything starts with doing things with good intentions, that is the prerequisite for sustainable design. When environments are created in a haphazard way, they easily become neglected.

Were you concerned about the small cracks around the concrete surfaces on the mounds above?

It was expected that something like this might happen and we are keeping an eye on the issue. It’s not about climatic conditions. There is a lot of experimentation in this architectural project on many levels, where we didn’t just use previously tested models, and then there might always be something unexpected.

Amos Rex, JKMM Architects
The above domes taking over the old bus station echo with the rocky outcrops elsewhere in Helsinki, photo ©Marianna Wahlsren

The new university building Tiedekulma, also by JKMM Architects, has a very simple exterior that belies complexity inside. Is that something that you aim for?

In the long run, I’m drawn to a certain level of modesty, where the surrounding context is respected, instead of bulldozing the existing environment in order to make a big architectural gesture. At the Tiedekulma building the surrounding context is even more culturally significant than at Lasipalatsi. It’s surrounded by historic architectural layers: university buildings by Engel and then more recent by Ervi. So I felt we had to be very careful and discreet with the facades. Here around Lasipalatsi there have been more transformations, so there was also more freedom to experiment with new forms. However I feel it’s important to be considerate towards history and the environment in the long run. That’s how you can fit new architecture within temporal layers and create enduring spatial continuity in the urban fabric.

Amos Rex, ‘Massless’ by teamLab collective 30.8.2018 – 6.1.2018 

Fondazione Prada, Heidegger's hut

Obsession with huts showcased in Venice

The exhibition Machines à Penser explores the idea of isolation close to nature as an important part in the creative thinking process.

Mapping the links between philosophers’ obsession with huts in the beautifully restored interiors of Fondazione Prada, here the piano nobile galleries.

When Dieter Roelstraete was invited to curate the Fondazione Prada exhibition to coincide with the Architecture Biennale in Venice, he knew immediately what he wanted to do. ”I have been thinking about this topic for years: the idea of the huts” he explained, referring to some very specific huts associated to three leading thinkers of the twentieth century: Martin Heidegger, Theodor Adorno and Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Belgian curator Dieter Roelstraete in front of Wittgenstein’s cabin reconstructed inside the first floor gallery

The idea of philosophers working in isolation, surrounded by wild nature had intrigued Roelstraete, who studied philosophy himself and understood the attraction of being able to focus your thoughts in a profound way. ”The dream of the hut is a very powerful vision of being away from the global 24/7 connected society”. Although this need was very much evident already way before the internet, as Roelstraete has observed through his interest towards huts: ”Many artists, writers and composers felt the need to isolate themselves to be more productive: Strindberg had a hut, Edward Grieg had a hut”.

Reconstruction of Heidegger’s hut in the Black Forest in Germany, where he wrote Being and Time, published in 1927

Of the three philosophers Heidegger is probably the most quoted in the theory of architecture. His ideas on phenomenology have been very influential for architects and academics, and his hut in the Black Forest in Germany has become a sort of pilgrimage site. The iconic hut dating from the 1920s has attracted phenomenology enthusiasts and philosophical tourists from all over the world. ”When I went there with my friends we all thought we’d like to live there. Of course it’s a bit a of a joke, because we can’t have it”, Roelstraete says, ”But there is something very seductive about it”.

Wittgenstein’s walking stick on loan from the von Wright collection at Helsinki University

Wittgenstein’s cabin was built on an even more remote location in Norway, where it could only be reached over the water across the Sognefjord. Although the hut has been removed from its original location, the empty site is now a tourist destination. Adorno’s hut is even more mysterious as an appropriated construction by the Scottish poet and sculptor Ian Hamilton Finlay.

Adorno’s Hut (1986-87), by poet and sculptor Ian Hamilton Finlay

The lure of rural seclusion has influenced architects as well. ”Many architects build huge structures that define the cityscape, but they would actually like to live on a farm in Switzerland”, Roelstraete observes with a hint of irony. And indeed that was also very much the case with Le Corbusier, who loved staying in Le Cabanon, a small timber cabin on the Côte d’Azur. It wasn’t as isolated as the philosophers’ huts, but anyhow there is a contradiction in the futuristic schemes he envisioned and the simple cabin life he seemed to prefer. 

Inside Heidegger’s hut, black and white photographs of the philosopher’s 1960s cottage life by Digne Meller Marcovicz

  Machines à Penser at Fondazione Prada, Venice, 26.May – 25. November 2018